The Honeybee: computerssquare.com: Hall, Kirsten, Arsenault, Isabelle: Fremdsprachige Bücher. honeybee Bedeutung, Definition honeybee: 1. a type of bee that lives with others in a hive and makes honey 2. a type of bee that lives with. Honeybees are a valuable model organism for the investigation of basic At the Honeybee Research Centre of the "Polytechnische Gesellschaft" in Oberursel.
Honeybee Neurobiology and Behaviorhoneybee Bedeutung, Definition honeybee: 1. a type of bee that lives with others in a hive and makes honey 2. a type of bee that lives with. Honeybees are a valuable model organism for the investigation of basic At the Honeybee Research Centre of the "Polytechnische Gesellschaft" in Oberursel. Von Praktikern im Einsatz entwickelt, überzeugt es durch eine Kombination aus durchdachter Technik, hoher Ernteleistung und einfachem Aufbau. Das Honey.
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All rights reserved. Honeybee hives have long provided humans with honey and beeswax. Such commercial uses have spawned a large beekeeping industry, though many species still occur in the wild.
All honeybees are social and cooperative insects. Many subspecies have adapted to the local geographic and climatic environments; in addition, breeds such as the Buckfast bee have been bred.
Behavior, color, and anatomy can be quite different from one subspecies or even strain to another. It seems to have diverged from its eastern relatives only during the Late Miocene.
This would fit the hypothesis that the ancestral stock of cave-nesting honey bees was separated into the western group of East Africa and the eastern group of tropical Asia by desertification in the Middle East and adjacent regions, which caused declines of food plants and trees that provided nest sites, eventually causing gene flow to cease.
The diversity of A. Apis mellifera is not native to the Americas , so it was not present when the European explorers and colonists arrived.
However, other native bee species were kept and traded by indigenous peoples. Many of the crops that depend on western honey bees for pollination have also been imported since colonial times.
Escaped swarms known as "wild" honey bees, but actually feral spread rapidly as far as the Great Plains , usually preceding the colonists.
Honey bees did not naturally cross the Rocky Mountains ; they were transported by the Mormon pioneers to Utah in the late s, and by ship to California in the early s.
Africanized honey bees known colloquially as "killer bees" are hybrids between European stock and the East African lowland subspecies A.
However, these strains do not overwinter well, so they are not often found in the colder, more northern parts of North America. The original breeding experiment for which the East African lowland honey bees were brought to Brazil in the first place has continued though not as originally intended.
Novel hybrid strains of domestic and re-domesticated Africanized honey bees combine high resilience to tropical conditions and good yields.
They are popular among beekeepers in Brazil. Tribe Apini Latreille . As in a few other types of eusocial bees, a colony generally contains one queen bee , a female; seasonally up to a few thousand drone bees , or males;  and tens of thousands of female worker bees.
Details vary among the different species of honey bees, but common features include:. The worker bees rotate through the cluster from the outside to the inside so that no bee gets too cold.
The colder the weather is outside, the more compact the cluster becomes. During winter, they consume their stored honey to produce body heat. During the summer, however, this is achieved through fanning and water evaporation from water collected in various fields.
Of all the honey bee species, only A. Species of Apis are generalist floral visitors, and pollinate many species of flowering plants, but because of their "generalized" nature, they do so inefficiently.
Without specialized adaptations for specific flowers, their ability to reach pollen and nectar is often limited.
What's more, their tendency to visit all species in a given area means that the pollen they carry for any one species is often very diluted. As such, they can provide some pollination to many plants, especially non-native crops, but most native plants have some native pollinator that is far more effective at pollinating that species.
Western honey bees are often described as being essential to all human food production, leading to claims that without their pollination, all of humanity would starve, or even die out.
In fact, many important crops need no insect pollination at all. Soybeans are self-pollinated. Rice , wheat , sorghum , and maize are all wind pollinated , as are most other grasses.
Similarly, no crops originating in the New World depend on the western honey bee Apis mellifera at all, as the insect is invasive, having been brought over with colonists in the last few centuries.
Tomatoes , peppers , squash , and all other New World crops evolved with native pollinators like squash bees , bumble bees , and other native bees.
The stingless bees mentioned by Jefferson are distant relatives of the honey bees, in the genus Melipona.
Honey bees obtain all of their nutritional requirements from a diverse combination of pollen and nectar. Pollen is the only natural protein source for honey bees.
Adult worker honey bees consume 3. Of these amino acids, honey bees require highest concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, however elevated concentrations of arginine and lysine are required for brood rearing.
Pyridoxine is the most prevalent B vitamin found in royal jelly and concentrations vary throughout the foraging season with lowest concentrations found in May and highest concentrations found in July and August.
Honey bees lacking dietary pyridoxine were unable to rear brood. Pollen is also a lipid source for honey bees ranging from 0.
Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are not considered essential but have shown to significantly improve the number of brood reared. Nurse bees have the ability to selectively transfer sterols to larvae through brood food.
Nectar is collected by foraging worker bees as a source of water and carbohydrates in the form of sucrose. The dominant monosaccharides in honey bee diets are fructose and glucose but the most common circulating sugar in hemolymph is trehalose which is a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules.
Honey bees require water to maintain osmotic homeostasis, prepare liquid brood food, and to cool the hive through evaporation.
A colony's water needs can generally be met by nectar foraging as it has high water content. Occasionally on hot days or when nectar is limited, foragers will collect water from streams or ponds to meet the needs of the hive.
The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. In Japan, where mellifera is vulnerable to local hornets and disease, the Japanese honey bee a.
Modern hives also enable beekeepers to transport bees, moving from field to field as the crop needs pollinating and allowing the beekeeper to charge for the pollination services they provide, revising the historical role of the self-employed beekeeper, and favoring large-scale commercial operations.
Bees of various types other than honey bees are also domesticated and used for pollination or other means around the world, including Tetragonula iridipennis in India, the blue orchard bee for tree nut and fruit pollination in the United States, and a number of species of Bombus bumblebees for pollination in various regions globally, such as tomatoes , which are not effectively pollinated by honey bees.
Primarily in places where western honey bees were imported by humans, periodic collapses in western honey bee populations have occurred at least since the late 19th century.
This has been dubbed "colony collapse disorder" CCD and was at first unexplained. Larval stages of the moth G. Eggs are laid within the hive, and the larvae that hatch tunnel through and destroy the honeycombs that contain bee larva and their honey stores.
The tunnels they create are lined with silk, which entangles and starves emerging bees. Destruction of honeycombs also result in honey leaking and being wasted.
Both G. To manage the mite, temperature treatments are possible, but also distorts wax of the honeycombs. Chemical fumigants, particularly CO 2 , are also used.
Honey is the complex substance made when bees ingest nectar, process it, and store the substance into honey combs. Worker bees of a certain age secrete beeswax from a series of exocrine glands on their abdomens.
As with honey, beeswax is gathered by humans for various purposes such as candle making, waterproofing, soap and cosmetics manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, art, furniture polish and more.
Bees collect pollen in their pollen baskets and carry it back to the hive. Worker bees combine pollen, honey and glandular secretions and allow it to ferment in the comb to make bee bread.
The fermentation process releases additional nutrients from the pollen and can produce antibiotics and fatty acids which inhibit spoilage.
In the hive, pollen is used as a protein source necessary during brood-rearing. In certain environments, excess pollen can be collected from the hives of A.
The product is used as a health supplement. It has been used with moderate success as a source of pollen for hand pollination.
Bee brood — the eggs, larvae or pupae of honey bees — is nutritious and seen as a delicacy in countries such as Indonesia,  Mexico, Thailand, and many African countries; it has been consumed since ancient times by the Chinese and Egyptians.
Propolis is a resinous mixture collected by honey bees from tree buds, sap flows or other botanical sources, which is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive.
Royal jelly is a honey bee secretion used to nourish the larvae. Honey bees have three castes : drones , workers, and queens. Drones are typically haploid , having only one set of chromosomes , and primarily exist for the purpose of reproduction.
There are rare instances of diploid drone larvae. This phenomenon usually arises when there are more than two generations of brother-sister mating.
In developing bees, if the conditions are that the individual is heterozygous for the csd gene, they will develop into females. If the conditions are so that the individual is hemizygous or homozygous for the csd gene, they will develop into males.
The instances where the individual is homozygous at this gene are the instances of diploid males. They do not defend the hive or kill intruders, and do not have a stinger.
Workers have two sets of chromosomes. Workers typically develop in 21 days. A typical colony may contain as many as 60, worker bees.
Their duties change upon the age of the bee in the following order beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell : feed brood, receive nectar, clean hive, guard duty, and foraging.
Workers have morphological specializations, including the pollen basket corbicula ,  abdominal glands that produce beeswax, brood-feeding glands, and barbs on the sting.
Under certain conditions for example, if the colony becomes queenless , a worker may develop ovaries. Worker honey bees perform different behavioural tasks that cause them to be exposed to different local environments.
Queen honey bees are created when worker bees feed a single female larvae an exclusive diet of a food called " royal jelly ".
Honeybee colonies are susceptible to a variety of diseases and parasites. Examples of agents that have been particularly devastating for colonies in Europe and North America include the nonnative parasites Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae.
Colony collapse disorder CCD , which was first reported in in the United States, caused massive colony losses and presented significant challenges for crop pollination, a major service of the beekeeping industry in North America.
The detection of CCD also heightened previous concerns about suspected declines in honeybee populations in the United States and elsewhere.
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